The Devastation at A’ana

‘0 LE TAUA A Ā’ANA

‘Ina ‘ua taunu’u le tala ‘i Manono, na fa’atupu ai se vevesi matuā tele. Sa ‘auina atu loa lo lātou fuāva’a e ‘aumaia le tino maliu o lo lātou ali’i ma ‘o le ositāulaga. I lo lātou taunu’u ‘i Faleāsi’u, ma vā”‘aia le tino momomo o Tamafaiga, sā fa’ailoa e levāega lo lātou fa’anoanoa ma aualofa i le tase’i o lātou lauulu ma tatu’i o lātou ulu ma fatafata ‘i ni ma’a ma’ama’ai na o’o ‘ina tafe mai ai ni toto. Ona lātou fa’ae’e lea o le tino o le tupu fa’apea ma ana ‘au na fasia, ma le fa’aaloalo tele, ‘i lo lātou ‘alia ma fōlau atu ai ma le gūgū.Na vave ona taunu’u ‘i Manono le tala,*ina ‘ ua iloa e tagata ‘o lo lātou ositāulaga ta’uta’ua ‘ua i se tūlaga matavale fa’apea, sā suia ai a lātou auega ‘i leo o le taui-ma-sui: taui-ma-sui ‘i ā Ā’ana sā le’i puipuia lelei lo lātou Ali’i ma ‘o le Tupu; taui-ma-sui mo Fasito’outa sā lātou fa’ao’oina le āmioga-sesō. ‘E le tioa lā, ina ‘ua mavae sauniga_o le falelauasiga, sā sāunia loa Manono ma ana ‘au mo le taua fa’asaga ‘i Ā’ana.

‘0 ai nei sā ‘aufa’atasi ma Manono? ‘0 Manono lava ia fa’apea fo’i ma Fa’asālele’aga (‘a e maise Sāfotulāfai ma Sapapāli’i ) sā tā’ua ‘o ‘āiga o Mālietoa, ma ‘ona ‘o Mālietoa ‘o le ali’i-pule o le Tuamāsaga, tātou te mālamalama ai i le ‘aufa’atasi o nei itūmālō e tolu, ‘a e i taualumaga o mea na tutupu, tātou te le fa’amoemoeina tele ai. Taluai le tagata-valeina o Tamafaigā sā talia, pei ‘ona fa’amāonia e Ioane Viliamu, Stair, ma isi fo’i, ma le māliliega o le to’atele, ma e o’o lava ‘i le to’atele o tagata Manono sā fa’alilolilo lo lātou talisapaia o lea tūlaga. Peita’i, ‘ā o’o loa ‘ina sāuni-tau Manono, ona tātou iloa lea ma le māofa, ‘e 15 gata i itūmālō e tolu na.ta’ua ‘i luga, ‘a e toeitiiti lava ‘o Sāmoa ‘ātoa; – ‘ioe, *e o’o lava ‘i Atua,_le ‘au anamua a Ā’ana – sā lā’ei’au ma Manono e tete’e atu ‘i tagata sā lototetele e lāvea’i le atunu’u mai le fa’asauā lautele o Tamafaigā. Ina’ua logo tagata A’ana ‘ua sauni-tau Manono, sa la tou manatu mama ‘i ai ma fa’apea ‘o se uiga masani lava.

‘Ae ‘ina ‘ia latou mautala fa’apea ‘ua toetoe lava ‘o Savai’i ‘ātoa ma ‘Upolu ‘ātoa ‘ua ‘aufa’atasi ma lo lātou fili, na lātou iloa ai ‘o se taua aupito mata’utia ‘ua. i o lātou lima, ‘o se taua e mata e i’u ‘ina olopaiaina ai Ā’ana ma māliliu ai le to’atele o tagata-totoa. ‘E ui ’ina lātou talitonu fa^atasi ma ta’ita’i o A’ana i le le fetaui ona fa’afetauia o lenei tūlaga letutusa, ‘a ‘ua tonu lava i o lātou loto e tete’e ma puipui pea se’ia o’o ‘i le tagata mulim.uli sā sili ona lātou fa’apelepeleina; ‘auā ‘o le fasiotia i le tafā taluai le puipuiga o le ‘āiga po ‘o le atunu’u, ‘o se i’uga aupito mamalu lea, peita’i ‘o le fano i le pu’eina fa’atagata-o-taua, ‘o se fa’anoanoaga e le taualoaina lea.

Na fa’ato’ā māe’a lava ona la’u o tamaiti ma tagata-mātutua ‘i se nofoaga saogalemū (le ‘olo), fa’apea ma lātou sāuniuniga mo le osofa’iga, ‘a e vā’aia loale muā’au a_’autu’ufa’atasi ‘ua fotua’i atu i le talafātai o Fasito’o, Sā nofosāuni Ā’ana mo ‘ilātou, ma i le vaitafe o Mulivai, na fepa’ia’i ai le ulua’i fetauiga.
Sa matuā fa’ato’ilaloina lava le ‘autu’ufa’atasi, ma, ‘o le ātili matavale o lea to’ilalo, ‘o le fa’aleagaina lea o lo lātou va’a ta’uta’ua,’o le “Limulimutā”, le fa’atusa mamalu o le atua o taua o Manono.

Ina ‘ua mavae lenei ulua’i taua na toefo’i ai ‘autau a Ā’ana ‘i lo lātou ‘olo, ‘a ‘o Manono ma ana ‘au, sā fa’apotopoto le to’atele, ma nofoia ai Fasito’otai i lona talafātai, ma ‘avea ma o lātou laumua. Ina ‘o lo ‘o talaina mai e Rev. J.B. Stair, mo le mālamalamaga lelei ma le au’ili’iliga o lenei taua a Ā’ana (pp. 250-258), ‘o lea ‘o le’ā ‘ou tu’uina atu ai na ‘o se fa’apu’upu’uga.

Sa fa’asolosolo ai i ia aso ona fa’aauau o le taua ma ni manumālō i itūtaua ‘uma e lua, fa’atasi ai ma le tele o le fasi; ona sā fa’atau-tutū ma le loto totoa e Ā’ana ni vaegā’au sa fa’ateleina pea ‘ua silia ma le tausaga ‘ātoa, na i’u ai ‘ina to’ilalo ma_fa’amālosia A’ana e ifo ana ‘au. Peita’i ,_’o ni fa’ailoga o le loto-tele sa maua pea e le to’atele o tagata totoa o Ā’ana, ma na fa’ateleina ai l_e ita o ie ‘aumanumālō ma lātou sāuāine ātili ai le ‘auto’ilalo na pā’u’ū ‘i o lātou lima.

Ina ‘ua mavae lenei taua, sā le mafai ai e A’ana ona fa’agāoioi se isi 1;ete’e; sā fasia pe pu’eina ana ‘autotoa, ‘ua mou ‘ese lona mamalu anamua, ma ‘ua gausia ma le toe maua lona mālosi. ‘E le tioa lā i failāuga ona tā’ua lenei taua “‘o le peiga o le mālō.”

‘0 fafine ma tagata-mātutua fa’apea ma tamaiti sā nofo saogālemū i lo lātou ‘olo’ina ‘ ua to’ilalo o lātou tagata totoa, sā taumafai loa lātou e sā’ili ni lafitaga i le vaomāoa. Peita’i, sā le taulau a lātou taumafaiga e sōsola ‘ese, ‘auā sā tuliloaina pea lava ‘ilātou e le ‘ausāuā, ma na tapu’eina ‘uma ‘ilātou ma ‘ave ‘i Fasito’o e susunu ola ai.

‘0 le afiafi o le aso ‘a ‘o tauina le taua mulimuli, sā ‘elia ai se lua matuā tele i Maota, ‘o se faoā’a’ai o Fasito’otai. ‘0 lenei lua, sā ta’ua i le igoa ‘o Tito, na fa’atumu i ni fafie ma fa’amumū loa ‘i ai le afi, na fa’apea ona fausia ai o se tu’ugamau tele. ‘I lenei afi mata’utia na lafoina ‘i ai ‘e le gata nā ‘o ni ‘autotoa sa tapu’eina, ‘a e fa’apea fo’i ma isi tagata ,_fafine ma tamaiti sa tapu’eina e le ‘au lealolofa. Mo aso ma pō e tele, sā fa’aauau ai lenei sāliāga mata’utia ‘o le susunu olā o tagata, ma sā_fa’aopoopo atu ni isi fafie i lea aso ma lea aso, ‘auā sā faigatā ona tāofia pea le ‘a’asa o lea afi o lo ‘o fa’amūina ai le anoano o tagata pagātia. Sā fa’amaonia e Rev. J.S. Ella fa’apea e fāselau ‘ilātou na susunuina i lea ‘ogāumu o le taui-ma-sui.

‘0 lātou sā fa’atagataotauaina mai Fasito’otai na filifilia e mua’i fa’asala, ona fa’asolo atu ai lea o Faleāsi’u ma isi nu’u e soso’o atu ai, i le ao ma le pō, taeao ma le afiafi, se’ia o’o ‘i le tagata pagātia mulimuli lava, ‘o se togisala mo le tagata-valeina o le tupu ma le ositāulaga sili ‘o Tamafaigā.

‘0 aso ia ‘a ‘o fa’agāoioia vā’aiga mata’utia i le talafātai i mātū o ‘Upolu, na taunu’u ai Rev. Ioane Viliamu ‘i Savai’i i le Sāvali o le Filemū, i ā Aokuso, 1830. ‘0 lo ‘o ia tā’ua lenei taualumaga i lanā tusi ‘o le “Missionary Enterprise” i_le itūlau e 87, ‘o lo ‘o ia fa’apea ai:
“A ‘o tūlau’ele’ele faiā’oga, sa tōsina o mātou māfaufau i le va’a^ atu ‘i mauga o le itū e fa’afesāga’i ma le ‘auiti, sā ufitia i le afi-mumū ma le asu; ma’ina ‘ua mātou su’esu’eina, na ta’uina mai_ai fa^apea ‘o se taua tele sā vāgai i lea 1ava taeao, ma ‘o ni afi sā matou va’aia, ‘o ni afi ia o lo ‘o fa’a’umatia ai fale ma fanua, fa’apea ma tino o fafine ma tamaiti,’ātoa ma taaata ‘uma sa pā’u’ū ‘i lima fetotoi o le ‘aumanumalo.

Peita’i ‘o le taua leālofa o le fa’ atafunaga, ma le sauāina, ma le susunuina ola o tagata lenofosala, s5 le’i o’o lava ‘i lona fa’ai’uga. Mai le ulua’i talanoaga a Mālietoa ma Ioane Vi1iamu,_na tātou iloa ai 1e naunau tele o Mālietoa e toe fo’i atu ‘i A’ana i le tafā o le taua, ‘ina ‘ia fa’amāe’a le “gāluega.” Sā fa’amūina ‘āto’atoa fale ‘uma, fa’aleaga lā’au, ma fa’atāma’i fa’ato’aga ‘uma. Sā fōlau ra’amilo Rev. Ioane Viliamu i 1e talafātai sā mua’i matagōfie o A’ana i ā ‘Oketopa 1832, ma ia.tūsia ai e fa’apea (p. 138), “‘E tusa ma le sefulutasi māsina talu ona i’u le taua, sā ‘ou le va’aia se fale e tasi po ‘o se apitaga i le fa’asolo atu e tusa ma le sefulu maila.” Ma ‘o le tūlaga lenā o le taui-ma-sui a Manono ma ana ‘autu’ufa’atasi, ma ‘o se gāoioiga fo’i lea a Mālietoa e taui-ma-sui ai le oti o le tagata sa ia ‘inosia taluai le 1ematete’eina o lona sāuā. (V. Stair, p. 253).

‘E le taumate ‘o Mālietoa ‘o se ali’i aupito mamalu ina ‘ua maliu Tamafaigā’ ma e le gata’i lea, ‘o ia fo’i ‘o le ta’ita’i aloa’ia i le Taua Fa’atāfunaina o Ā’ana. Peita’i, ‘ā tonu sa ia le mafai to’atasi ona tāofia le ita o tagata Manono ma tāofia ai le taua o le taui-ma-sui, ‘a ‘o lona mamalu ma lona sapaia o Tuamāsaga ma le Fa’asālele’aga, sā mafai ai lava e ia ona tāofia ni sāuāga na pogai taluai lenei taua aupito mata’utia i fa’amaumauga o talatu’ufa’asolo o Sāmoa. ‘0 le mea lea, ‘o ia lava nai 15 se isi ta’ita’i e tatau ona tu’ua’iina mo āmioga letaupulea sā faia e Manono ma ana ‘autu’ufa’atasi ma ‘o lona faitoto’a lava e tatau ona ta’atia ai lea nofosala aupito tele, ‘ona ‘o le fasiotiga o le selau ma se)au o ola lenofosala i se tūlaga e fa’apea lona fa’apaupau.

‘E toe fa’aopoopo atu, ‘ā fai na i ā Mālietoa suafa e fā i le 1828 pei ‘ona tā’ua e ni isi tusitala, ‘ona ātili ai lea ona fa’ateleina ana
matāfaioi. Peita’i, ‘o le sauā mata’utia sā tau’aveina pea o le taua, e fōliga ‘i ā te a’u ‘o se fa’amāoniga lea, ‘o Mālietoa sa le’i ‘avea i aso ia ma tupu. ‘Ā na ia ‘ūmia nei suafa mamalu manū e faia ma le alofa ona uiga āga’i ‘i tagata Ā’ana. Peita-i,’e pei ‘ona sa iai, na ia maua lona sini ‘o suafa mamalu e fā sa mana’omia mo le nofotupu – ma, i lona māfaufau, ma’ina ‘ia maua lea sini, sā ia manatu ai e lelei ona fa’aosoo le fefe m* le mata’u pei ‘ona sā faia e lona tua’ā ‘o Tamafaigā na muamua i ā te ia.

The Devastation at A’ana

The A’ana war was the result of the increasing and cumulative insults and provocations of the then-king of Samoa Tamafaiga of Manono, an island in the Apolima Strait between Savai’i and Upolu, whose reign began around 1810, and whose elaborate and threatening displays of sovereignty and abuses of power finally culminated in his assasination in 1830 at Fasio’otai on the northwest corner of Upolu. Known for his brutal and capricious acts, he had angered the villagers of Faleasi’u by abusing their taupou (village maiden), whereupon they plotted his death by a skillfully planned surprise attack of such brutality that his few surviving warriors escaped without bringing the remains of their king back to Manono with them, a serious violation of custom.

Immediately, plans for revenge began at Manono, and preparations for war began anew.

THE A’ANA WAR: When the news of the assasination of Tamafaiga reached Manono, it produced the greatest consternation. Their fleet was immediately dispatched to fetch the remains of their king. Reaching Faleasi’u and seeing the mutilated body of Tamafaiga, the king’s loyal followers manifested their sorrow and grief by tearing out their hair and beating their heads and breasts with sharp stones until the blood flowed. Then they placed the body of the king and his slain companions with the greatest reverence in a war canoe (alia) and sailed away, back to Manono, in profound silence.

Manono was soon reached. When the people perceived that their renowned leader had been desecrated in such a horrible fashion, their lamentations changed into frenzied cries for revenge. Revenge on A’ana who had not protected their king and supreme leader, and revenge on Fasito’outa whose inhabitants had perpetrated the deed.

No wonder, then, that after the funeral ceremonies were completed, Manono and its allies prepared for war against A’ana. The news of the assassination had been received, as averred by J. Williams, Stair, (and other scholars), with almost universal satisfaction, and even secretly welcomed by many of his subjects among the Manono people.

But an unexpected reaction occurred throughout Samoa. As soon as Manono had determined upon war, (they found to their surprise) that not only the above mentioned three districts, but nearly the whole of Samoa including Atua, the old ally of A’ana – arrayed with Manono against the very people (of A’ana) who had dared deliver the country of their common tormentor Tamafaiga.

Another consequence was that in joining forces with Manono and against A’ana, that also meant to align against Malietoa who had coincidentally aligned himself with the newly arrived John Williams whose mission was to convert the Samoans to Christianity.

The terrible scene on the north shore of Upolu coincided with the arrival of John Williams who wrote of the devastation, including the burning of houses, plantations, women, children, the infirm, the captives, and other frank atrocities, best described elsewhere. We turn to the diary of the missionary John Williams for a description of the carnage, which lasted two entire years, and contributed greatly to the reputation of the Samoans as fierce and ferocious, if not merciless warriors, particularly in that village. This coincided with the emergence of Malietoa as a great leader:

“This disastrous war had continued with unabated fury for nearly nine months in which many of our people fell victim so that the dead and wounded were brought over every day. The cries lamentations of the women together with their frantic behaviour in wounding their heads with stones and sharks teeth added to the appearance of the victims, some of whom were sadly hacked and mangled, (and sometimes) only the head was obtained, a source of continued distress to us, so that, although the termination was attended with such sad havoc among the enemy, we could but rejoice at its conclusion. The conquerors made immense fires and threw men, women, and children alive into them. On being reproved for such barbarous conduct, they replied their anger was great at losing so many relatives that the Chiefs could not restrain them. However Malietoa, it appears, saved all who fled to him for refuge, and has obtained a great name through the country for so doing.” Williams, John, The Samoan Journals of John Williams, LMS, ANU Press, 1965-1991, p133. https://openresearch-repository.anu.edu.au/bitstream/1885/114743/2/b15434990.pdf

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